Power and phones were down in many areas. These factors are then combined with topographic slope angle and geologic information to generate event-based statistical or deterministic models used to explain the distribution of landslide frequency and area or volume. The strong ground shaking caused damage to buildings and infrastructure across the northeast of the South Island. On November 14, 2016, the South Island of New Zealand experienced a 7.8 magnitude earthquake named the Kaikoura Earthquake after the town of Kaikoura near the quake’s epicentre. ; Gerstenberger, M.C. The national LINZ 8 m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) covers the entire area affected by landslides and is also being used for the mapping. Indicates whether landslide appears to be a first-time failure or a reactivation of a previous movement. âLowâ confidence may indicate strong uncertainty in the landslide boundary, uncertainty in the type of landslide mapped, or uncertainty in co-seismic occurrence (in Kaikoura EQ sequence). used to digitize the landslide, and confidence in the mapping. ; Chin, C.Y. 6 pm update: 25 eqs in the last hour, 313 eqs since 6 am today and 1212 eqs since the M7.5. Use âundifferentiatedâ if you cannot tell which style of movement. (AP Photo/Yusuf Wahil). All rights reserved. The quake was centered 36 kilometers (22 miles) south of West Sulawesi province’s Mamuju district, at a depth of 18 kilometers (11 miles), the U.S. Geological Survey said. From the Elixis Group Ltd., Athens, Greece: J Manousakis. Information is required immediately but creating high-quality empirical landslide inventories takes time and underpins the development of plans and policies to mitigate and manage the risks from slope instability. For each landslide, the following is being collected: For each landslide, all of these features are linked by a common number assigned to the âSourceIDâ field within each feature class. State Highway 1 (the main road link in the South Island of New Zealand) and the South Island main trunk railway between Ward in Marlborough and Oaro in North Canterbury, were closed because of landslides. April 2014. A high quality landslide inventory and detailed engineering geological mapping of the largest landslides will allow the interaction between large landslide occurrence and surface fault rupture to be investigated and how the localised release of energy, along with structural geological and material controls and slope morphology interact to initiate large landslides. This limits the usefulness of such models for assessing the hazard and geomorphic impacts associated with large co-seismic landslides. Sirajuddin, who goes by one name, said although the inland earthquake did not have the potential to cause a tsunami, people along coastal areas ran to higher ground in fear one might occur. The same images have been processed by EAGLE Technology and these have better relief stretch but poor positional accuracy. non-plastic silt, sand, gravel and boulders), peat, ice, undifferentiated. “I, on behalf of the Government and all Indonesian people, would like to express my deep condolences to families of the victims,” Widodo said. Post-earthquake digital elevation models derived from airborne LiDAR. The 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake generated thousands of landslides and 196 landslide dams. The main material type that failed. The authors also thank the paper reviewers for their comments. Capturing the landslide data is an ongoing process as new information becomes available (e.g. Hungr, O., Leroueil, S., Picarelli, L., 2014. The other work-stream focussed on landslide dams (landslides blocking rivers and streams and impounding bodies of water) and became an evolving process: from a search task, to a rapid assessment of hazard and examining high hazard dams for consequent risks, and then undertaking more detailed work to survey the most dangerous dams so the consequences of a very rapid (catastrophic) failure could be modelled and used by authorities to monitor and manage the risks. Past efforts to explain the spatial variability in co-seismic landslide size and concentration typically rely on comparisons with earthquake magnitude and mechanism, epicentral distance, seismic observations such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and engineering parameters such as Arias Intensity and other proxies for ground shaking intensity such as proximity to mapped faults. Credit: Mark Mitchell, Pool, Getty Images. Initial results from our landslide investigations suggest that predictive models relying only on ground-shaking estimates may underestimate the number and size of the larger landslides that occurred. Given the sparsely populated area affected by landslides, only a few homes were impacted and no deaths from landslides occurred. Figure 1: An example of landslide inventory mapping on the coast north of Kaikoura. And of course this work would not have been possible without the skill and dedication of the helicopter pilots from Precision Helicopters; Christchurch Helicopters; and Advanced Flight Ltd. Dellow G.D. 2001 GeoNet landslide response. “We are racing against time to rescue them,” he said. In addition to discrete landslides, linear slope deformation indicators (i.e. This landslide is at -42.237, 173.664 if you want to take a look on Google Earth. The most visible consequence of the strong ground shaking was widespread landslides. sediment has remained on the slope); Coupled (at least some of the sediment has entered a drainage line (including active floodplain, but. Strong ground shaking affected the North Canterbury and Marlborough regions of the South Island, causing widespread damage to buildings and infrastructure across these sparsely populated areas. The 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake generated thousands of landslides and 196 landslide dams. More than 4,000 people died, many of the victims buried when whole neighborhoods were swallowed in the falling ground. The process for compiling the definitive landslide inventory for the 14 November 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake is described below. He said his team was working to save dozens of people trapped in eight buildings, including in the governor's office, a hospital and a hotel. From the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA: A Adda. In addition to the satellite imagery, low level aerial oblique photographs are also being used to help define the landslides. In the interests of space three people heavily involved in the initial response are named as authors, but that in no way reflects or diminishes the contributions made by the following people. Orcas perform at Shamu Stadium at SeaWorld in Orlando, Florida. “They are trapped inside, please help,” he cried. From the University of Washington, Seattle, USA: J Wartman. The inventory captures information on: landslide type (material type and style of movement), landslide magnitude (areal size, and volume where possible), runout (distance the debris travels down slope), activity (whether pre-existing), connection and/or interaction with rivers (e.g. First-time failure, reactivated, retrogressed. President Joko Widodo said in a televised address that he had ordered his social minister and the chiefs of the military, police and disaster agency to carry out emergency response measures and search and rescue operations as quickly as possible. The Varnes classification of landslide types, an update. From GNS Science, Lower Hutt NZ: G Archibald, J Begg, Z Bruce, J Carey, F Della Pasqua, M Hill, K Jones, B Lyndsell, B Lukovic, M Rattenbury, S Read, B Rosser, C Singeisen, P Villamor. In 2018, a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in Palu on Sulawesi island set off a tsunami and caused soil to collapse in a phenomenon called liquefaction. 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