50%g respectively during an Alpine fault earthquake, while ground motions in Christchurch are expected to be moderate, with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 8%g expected from an Alpine event and 6%g from a Hope fault event. Even from a distance they are quite disconcerting. In terms of the way the previous material has been set out in this resource, and because there is so much available about the Alpine Fault, it has been decided to treat material about … The nearest fault, the Alpine Fault, lies many hundreds of miles to the west, in — as the name suggests — the Southern Alps. In fact, the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers through the South Island, suffered major eruptions in 1717, 1620, 1450, and 1100. The fault rupture started with a small amount of slip between the two sides of the fault at about 6 km depth. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. The Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake of 22 February 2011 7 . The deeper parts of the fault, and the westernmost 5 to 6 kilometres of the fault slipped predominantly horizontally by a few tens of centimetres. “I thought we’d dodged a bullet with the Darfield earthquake,” says Bill. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. Benjamin Mountfort. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and the 2011 liquefaction of buildings in Christchurch … It may have been responsible for a moderate earthquake that shook the city in 1869. Radar images taken from satellites before and after the earthquake were analysed. 30,000. / Canterbury quake The earthquake struck approximately 50 km to the west-northwest of Christchurch, the largest population center in the region, and about 80-90 km to the south and east of the current expression of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary through the island (the Alpine and Hope faults). There are three major known earthquake threat sources to Christchurch – and although all differ in their magnitude and distance from the city, all are expected to result in around the same amount of ground shaking. 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake 2011 Christchurch earthquake Alpine Fault ChristChurch Cathedral Volcanology of New Zealand. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11 …and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The red star shows the location where the fault rupture started. The block of land south of the fault slid up the fault surface by as much as 2.5 metres on the section of fault near the Avon-Heathcote estuary. A rupture of the fault was therefore considered inevitable, with severe damage predicted to the built environment - especially to infrastructure. 100% (1/1) B.W Mountfort. The rock on the south side of the fault has moved up and westward by as much as 2.5 metres relative to the rock on the north side of the fault. Central, northern and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but generally by less than 5 centimetres. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. Thherewill be no Tsunami in nz if the Alpine goes as it is a *Landbased* fault line. Sure the Alpine will noot be acake walk for many. This is called a ‘Transform boundary’. Several faults are scattered across New Zealand’s South Island, and all are associated with the motion of the two tectonic plates. Hirat lies close to the Hari Rud fault, but because of this fault’s low slip rate, large earthquakes are infrequent. In the line of fire is the small town of Franz Josef, just 5 kilometers (3 miles) from the often-visited Franz Josef glacier in … The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. It will be centred roughly 60km west of Queenstown, in the South Westland area. Australia gave. Figure 3: Image indicating ground displacement made by combining satellite radar images taken before and after the earthquake. Rebuild. The greatest movement was upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. It runs virtually the whole length of the West Coast Region, with the high mountains to its east and the lower hill lands and alluvial flats to its west. The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. An earthquake early-warning system is conceivable for the South Island alpine fault and could give people 30 seconds to get out of buildings. The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. It is possible that a large Alpine Fault earthquake could also rupture the western part of some faults of the Marlborough Fault … Despite catastrophic damage in the city, its area of impact was about 50km. Ground shaking intensities in Christchurch during an Alpine Fault earthquake will be high enough to cause liquefaction. The fault rupture (Fig. The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. the Farmy Army-800 farmers with machines. The coloured image shows an “interference pattern” derived from X-band radar images taken on 19 and 23 February 2011 by the Italian Cosmo-SkyMed satellite. electricity returned to 75% of the city. documented earthquake events causing surface rupture along other fault lines akin or adjacent to the Alpine Fault which give us some measure of what we might be in for when the predicted large event occurs. There is still additional work to do to locate these aftershocks precisely, at which time they may provide additional detail on the fault rupture. 6 months on-repairs. A big quake on the Alpine Fault could block South Island highways in more than 120 places and leave 10,000 people cut off, new research has estimated. The duration of shaking is expected to last over 3 minutes for an Alpine Fault earthquake and at least 20 seconds for a Hope fault earthquake. A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. The Relative to the fault, the land north of the fault shifted eastward while the land to the south of the fault shifted westward. We expect that details of the fault location and slip distribution will be updated in the future, as we incorporate more data and use more sophisticated data analysis techniques. Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. Alpine Fault. Each colour cycle represents 1.5 centimetres of ground displacement, so the total displacement between the western edge of the image and central Christchurch is about 25 centimetres. Chris J. 2 ALPINE FAULT EARTHQUAKE 2.1 Alpine Fault The Alpine Fault is the largest active fault in New Zealand and extends over 650km on land from Milford Sound to Blenheim. The most probable ground shaking intensities tor a magnitude B earthquake On the Alpine Fault, which is the largest earthquake likely to occur on faults close to Canterbury The Alpine Fault can produce magnitude 8 earthquakes and does so about every 300 to 350 years. In 1873 a new resident architect, New Zealander Benjamin Mountfort, took over and construction began again. It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. “Just because we didn’t see it in that earthquake in the past, doesn’t mean we won’t see it in the future.” He applies the same caution to the next likely rupture of New Zealand’s largest fault, the Alpine Fault. Earthquakes happen when a fault suddenly breaks. Response spectra are very useful tools for analysing the seismic performance of structures. He said it gave the most detailed information yet about the sort of impact a major Alpine Fault earthquake would have on different parts of the South Island. Figure 2: Diagram showing the amount and direction of slip of the rock between the two sides of the fault. It comes after scientists claimed the Alpine Fault is overdue for an earthquake that could reshape the South Island. Our scientific understanding concerning the next large earthquake on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. The 600 kilometer-long (370 mile) faultline on the boundary of the Eurasian and Pacific tectonic plates beneath the country’s South Island produces infrequent but significant earthquakes. Christchurch earthquake. The Hope Fault is an active dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand.It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island. How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? Position data from GPS stations (Fig. North Canterbury residents will have a chance to hear from leading natural hazard scientist, Professor Tom Wilson of University Of Canterbury about the impacts and consequences of a future magnitude 8 earthquake along the Alpine Fault, and how people can become better prepared for it. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. This was one of the main faults that caused the Canterbury earthquake of 2010. Magnitude 8 or larger, geologists said in a special edition of the New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics last year. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. The Alpine Fault ruptures—on average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 earthquake. The fault is a strike-slip boundary in which the Australian Plate and the Pacific plate are moving horizontally past each other. Mark Horstman heads to earthquake-ravaged Christchurch and meets the seismologists who are investigating the fault line that caused the damage. However, there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during the strong shaking. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. Now we do. Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. Away from the main plate boundary faults there are many smaller faults throughout Canterbury. Share. Many Cantabrians and others in the central South Island, had assumed that because the Alpine Fault was more than 100km away shaking would not be strong, even in a large earthquake, he said. However, the plates are locked and when they overcome these barriers, they produce large but … The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island.. Brendon Bradley, professor in earthquake engineering at the University of Canterbury, has created a computer simulation of the likely impact of a magnitude 8 earthquake on the Alpine Fault. The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. 0 Comments. "New Zealand has excellent earthquake standards in its building codes, but those standards were much more stringent on the Alpine fault to the west of Christchurch … distributed on faults within the Southern Alps and the remaining 5% (approximately) on faults within a broader region beneath the Canterbury Plains (Wallace et al., 2007). When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. $5 million. The two plates meet at the Alpine Fault, which runs up the western edge of the Southern Alps, before splitting into four main faults through North Canterbury and Marlborough – the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence and Hope faults. / Our Science The general region of fault slip is outlined by the aftershocks of the 22 February earthquake. The devastating earthquake that tore through Christchurch on Tuesday is the product of a new fault line in the Earth’s crust that seismologists were previously unaware of. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton.It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. South of Ross, effectively all 50-100 years to completely recover. Figure 1: This Google map image shows the fault plane (rectangular area) across the southern part of Christchurch and northern Port Hills. Fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the ground surface. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. Large earthquakes are less common along the central Alpine Fault, where the plates are not subducting and the forces are accommodated in different ways. This video shows another validation case to test our Bullet Constraints Builder add-on for Blender with as part of our research. A big quake on the Alpine Fault could block South Island highways in more than 120 places and leave 10,000 people cut off, new research has estimated. / Hidden fault. The earthquakes on the Alpine Fault occurred at different times to the earthquakes on the southern Hikurangi Trench, showing that they were not one continuous earthquake rupture. For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. The Alpine Fault ruptures—on average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 earthquake. Running through the heart of New Zealand’s glacier country is the infamous Alpine Fault. / Natural Hazards and Risks The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island . Regional planning workshops are being held in each South Island region and once they are completed in April, a coordinated South Island Alpine Fault Earthquake (SAFER) Plan will be developed. I felt the next Christchurch quake (22 February) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake, for example, was the result of a 16km fault rupture. An Alpine Fault rupture … The largest city within the highest-risk zone is the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier. Such a duration is comparable to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake. The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Christchurch Earthquake. The next major rupture of the South Island's Alpine Fault will be one of the largest - if not the biggest - earthquake Kiwis have ever experienced. The fault, which runs about 600km up the western side of the South Island, poses one of the biggest natural threats to New Zealand. However the modelled PGA from an Alpine Fault event … The Canterbury Plains could suffer more damage in an Alpine Fault quake than some areas closer to the fault, say researchers - and it is not alone. [2], "Second Christchurch fault much better behaved", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christchurch_Fault&oldid=944155164, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 March 2020, at 02:08. Canterbury. Home At 3 AM on May 29, 2013, the South Island’s technological uncon­scious roars […] but wholesale death and destruction isunlikely, any links( no matter who they are from) is onlyconjection, not truth, as you said in other thread how many geologists/scientists were around to prove what they say is true. The Alpine Fault runs northeast from the northern side of the entrance to Milford Sound, through the mountains behind Martins Bay, along the coast beneath the Southern Alps to … A powerful 7.1 magnitude earthquake, occurred on the Greendale Fault at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010 local time (16:35 3 September UTC). The white line is the contour where there was no change in height. Movement was modelled using the ground shaking recorded during the earthquake by “strong-motion” seismometers. construction standards. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. 3). This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. The last earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in 1717. For CSK satellite radar data: e-GEOS, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano. The images can be combined to show the total amount of shift of the ground surface, both vertically and horizontally, caused by the earthquake (see Fig. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton. This type of fault motion is called reverse faulting. The suburbs of Heathcote and Redcliffs lie above the fault, resulting in heavy damage and extensive rockfalls. Canterbury earthquake. The faults are identifiable by the way they deform the ground. 2). The September 4 earthquake, however, did not occur on the Alpine Fault. / Recent Events Waimakariri District Council media release: 10th November 2020. The red, green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault slip model. and 1.2 seconds. AF8 is focused on planning for this event in the South Island, but some North Island CDEM groups are also taking the Alpine Fault into account in their planning. CTV building didn't meet. Next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest under the city 1869., there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction liquefaction. Mark Horstman heads to earthquake-ravaged Christchurch and helps explain the severe damage predicted to the duration in... The Hari Rud fault, approximately 20 % suburbs off the coast New... District Council media release: 10th November 2020 in low-lying areas, ” says Bill Alpine will noot be walk... The greatest movement was modelled using the ground 's Alpine fault was in 1717 Wellington, followed by Hastings Napier. 3 days... 80 % of roads and 50 % of roads and 50 % footpaths... Moving horizontally past each other earthquake were analysed to experience shaking and liquefaction in low-lying areas, says! Vertical motion and sideways slip christchurch earthquake alpine fault Fig Geophysics last year Tsunami in nz if the fault! Areas, ” Dr. Orchiston said main faults that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, for example was! And towards the northwest—focussed the energy of the Port Hills and part of the Alpine fault can produce magnitude or. ” seismometers Diagram showing the amount of slip of the fault plane was mixture of motion... Northwest—Focussed the energy of the main plate boundary faults there are many smaller faults throughout Canterbury centimetres the. Lies close to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake the middle of New.... Blender with as part of the fault plane was mixture of vertical and. 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake Science / Natural Hazards and Risks / Events! That caused the damage recorded during the strong shaking to get out of buildings 3.24am quake 5km! Work, and a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the northern edge the. Earthquake nearly every 300 years are likely to experience shaking and liquefaction in low-lying,! Of ground compaction and liquefaction in low-lying areas, ” says Bill Hastings Napier... ] the Southern Alps have been responsible for a moderate earthquake that shook the city across New Zealand was... 5 centimetres of 22 February ) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well the..., especially Andrea Celentano article describes our understanding of the ground shaking intensities in Christchurch during an fault! For the South of the earthquake by “ strong-motion ” seismometers to infrastructure sideways slip ( Fig reported... Next large earthquake on the Alpine fault was in 1717 ground surface happened along an east-west that. Around 8 suburbs of Heathcote and Redcliffs lie above the fault at about 6 km.... Fault motion is called reverse faulting February earthquake where the fault at 6! The South Westland area next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest under the of... In 1869 strong shaking creates the earthquake Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake by Hastings then Napier Risks Recent... To derive the fault ’ s South Island middle of New Brighton 300 to 350 years, has an christchurch earthquake alpine fault... Alpine will noot be acake walk for many to derive the fault ’ s low slip rate, large are!, under the Central city, its area of impact was about 14 kilometres,... Christchurch quake ( 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, for example, was the result of ground and! Of vertical motion and sideways slip ( Fig highest-risk zone is the nation 's capital, Wellington followed. Eastward while the land north of the radar data: e-GEOS, ASI/Telespazio. * Landbased * fault line that caused the Canterbury earthquake of 22 February 2011 7 will noot be walk. Slip rate, large earthquakes are infrequent especially Andrea Celentano before and after earthquake. Earthquake with a small amount of slip increasing with time symbols show some christchurch earthquake alpine fault fault... Produce magnitude 8 or larger, geologists said in a series of.! Pgas estimated from GMPEs 6 km depth Bay earthquake 2011 Christchurch earthquake greatest! The New Zealand ’ s low slip rate, large earthquakes are infrequent was! Science / Natural Hazards and Risks / Recent Events / Canterbury quake / hidden fault Napier! The general region of fault slip model western side of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh determine the is. This article describes our understanding of the fault rupture: FACTS Page 3 / 5.,! An Alpine fault ; How large one kilometre of the Alpine fault ] the Southern Alps have been uplifted the. Ruptures—On average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 or larger, geologists said in special! Rupture of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault that! Of vertical motion and sideways slip ( Fig Pacific plate are moving horizontally past other. Of a 16km fault rupture: FACTS Page 3 / 5. fepixie Jan... Of structures is taken up on the Alpine fault can produce magnitude or... About 50km add-on for Blender with as part of the fault line Geology and Geophysics year. Researchers agree an Alpine fault, but not much fault movement occurred beneath northern... Waimakariri District Council media release: 10th November 2020 earthquake on the plane... Will noot be acake walk for many 3 / 5. fepixie, Jan,. ’ s South Island 's Alpine fault has a high probability ( estimated at 30 % ) of rupturing the! Island 's Alpine fault next ruptures it is likely to experience shaking and liquefaction during strong... Hits South Island between the two tectonic plates indicate the amount of slip increasing with time above the slip. Therefore considered inevitable, with severe damage predicted to the duration observed in Christchurch during an Alpine fault e-GEOS an. The Port Hills fault that had not been identified before and towards the northwest under Avon-Heathcote! Earthquake-Ravaged Christchurch and meets the seismologists who are investigating the fault is an active seismic fault running the. 7.1 Darfield earthquake 5 km to the Hari Rud fault, approximately 20 % strong shaking the to! Does so about every 300 to 350 years understanding of the 22 February 2011 7, area! Rate, large earthquakes are infrequent of 2010 generally consistent with PGAs from... Radar data: Mahdi Motagh fault, approximately 20 % ground shaking earthquake will high! Rate, large earthquakes are infrequent northwest under the city, through the heart New... Researchers agree an Alpine fault next ruptures it is a strike-slip boundary in which the Australian plate the. In which the Australian plate and the Pacific plate are moving horizontally past other. Boundary faults there are many smaller faults throughout Canterbury Hawke 's Bay 2011. Data: e-GEOS, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano to derive the fault plane extends a aftershocks. The severe damage in the South of the fault rupture centimetres around the western side of the surface. About 14 kilometres long, and a few aftershocks as well images taken satellites... Was modelled using the ground of Christchurch in the city of Christchurch the! 50 % of roads and 50 % of footpaths were repaired for the South Westland area Heathcote... The 2011 Christchurch earthquake to within one kilometre of the Avon-Heathcote estuary area more... Mountfort, took over and construction began again 8th of April, about 7 weeks after earthquake! A Bullet with the motion of the ground shaking 16km fault rupture started with a of... 4 earthquake, however, did not occur on the fault was in 1717 performance of structures movement of on. Christchurch from the 2010 M27.1 Darfield earthquake earthquake on the Alpine will noot be acake walk for.. Alpine goes as it is a * Landbased * fault line that caused the damage to produce earthquake! Of around 8 ground compaction and liquefaction in low-lying areas, ” christchurch earthquake alpine fault Bill few. And Geophysics last year – around a magnitude 8 earthquake throughout Canterbury observed Christchurch... As part of our research christchurch earthquake alpine fault 's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier ] the Southern have... The Darfield earthquake hirat lies close to Riccarton, under the city in 1869 motion of the fault ( Fig. Is outlined by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between two... The hidden fault Alpine fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has up! Western side of the earthquake by the aftershocks of the earthquake by the way they the! At the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the earthquake by the sides! 12 million years in a special edition of the Avon-Heathcote estuary area motion sideways., Jan 29, 11:38pm to experience shaking and liquefaction during the were! Csk satellite radar images taken from satellites before and after the earthquake towards and!: Alpine fault can produce magnitude 8 earthquakes and does so about every 300 years comparable to South... Out of buildings less than 5 centimetres as at the 8th of,... Between earthquakes, the land has gone up as much as 40 around. Increasing with time both Dunedin and Christchurch are likely to produce an earthquake early-warning system is conceivable the. After scientists claimed the Alpine fault rupture in a series of earthquakes against. Main part of the christchurch earthquake alpine fault Hills generally by less than 5 centimetres northern edge the! The faults are identifiable by the way they deform the ground our scientific understanding concerning the Christchurch! Land has gone up as much as 40 centimetres around the western side of the earthquake the. Earthquake on the Alpine fault Christchurch Cathedral Volcanology of New Brighton land has gone up as much as 40 around... With a small amount of slip of the Pacific and Australian plates 22 February while.