[254] After she ended Labour's five-year rule and became Prime Minister in May 1979,[255] he told Nigel Fisher (his biographer, and himself a Conservative MP): "Ted [Heath] was a very good No2 {pause} not a leader {pause}. In justification Macmillan quoted Lord Macaulay in 1851: Many politicians of our time are in the habit of laying it down as a self-evident proposition that no people ought to be free until they are fit to use their freedom. Macmillan had opposed Eden's trip to Jamaica and told Butler (15 December, the day after Eden's return) that younger members of the Cabinet wanted Eden out. Succeeded by: The Marquess of Londonderry: Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; In office 3 September 1931 – 18 January 1934: Prime Minister: Ramsay MacDonald: Preceded by: Hugh Dalton: Succeeded by: The Earl Stanhope [243], Macmillan had been elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1960, in a campaign masterminded by Hugh Trevor-Roper, and held this office for the rest of his life, frequently presiding over college events, making speeches and tirelessly raising funds. [98] In the opinion of The Economist: 'He gave the impression that his own undoubted capacity for imaginative running of his own show melted way when an august superior was breathing down his neck. There was something in all these views, which he did little to discourage, and which commanded public respect into the early 1960s. During the Kenya Emergency, the British authorities tried to separate the Kikuyu population from the Land and Freedom Army guerrillas (whom the British referred to as the "Mau Mau") by interning the Kikuyu in camps. [63], Macmillan visited Finland in February 1940, then the subject of great sympathy in Britain as it was being attacked by the USSR, then loosely allied to Nazi Germany. [201] During the Malaya Emergency, the majority of the Communist guerrillas were ethnic Chinese, and British policies tended to favour the Muslim Malays whose willingness to follow their sultans and imams made them more anti-communist. From the same year Macmillan permitted the US Navy to station Polaris submarines at Holy Loch, Scotland, as a replacement for Thor. Kennedy wanted to avoid the charge that the United States would be acting unilaterally in Southeast Asia if it did intervene in Laos and because Britain was a member of SEATO and he would face domestic criticism if the United States was the only SEATO member to fight in Laos. Partly as a consequence of this favour, in late October 1957 the US McMahon Act was eased to facilitate nuclear co-operation between the two governments, initially with a view to producing cleaner weapons and reducing the need for duplicate testing. Gott, 'Independent British Deterrent', p. 247. Her great-uncle was Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire, who was leader of the Liberal Party in the 1870s, and a close colleague of William Ewart Gladstone, Joseph Chamberlain and Lord Salisbury. [179] Macmillan planned an important role in setting up a four power summit in Paris to discuss the Berlin crisis that was supposed to open in May 1960, but which Khrushchev refused to attend owing to the U-2 incident. He was as trenchant a critic of his successors in his old age as he had been of his predecessors in his youth. Macmillan met Eisenhower privately on 25 September 1956 and convinced himself that the US would not oppose the invasion,[120] despite the misgivings of the British Ambassador, Sir Roger Makins, who was also present. [211], Through Macmillan had decided upon joining the EEC in 1960, he waited until July 1961 to formally make the application as he feared the reaction of the Conservative Party backbenchers, the farmers' lobby and the populist newspaper chain owned by the right-wing Canadian millionaire Lord Beaverbrook, who saw Britain joining the EEC as a betrayal of the British empire. The radioactive cloud spread to south-east England and fallout reached mainland Europe. Despite the hostility of large sections of British and American opinion, who were sympathetic to the guerillas and hostile to what was seen as imperialist behaviour, he persuaded a reluctant Churchill, who visited Athens later in the month, to accept Archbishop Damaskinos as Regent on behalf of the exiled King George. [130], Butler later recorded that during his period as acting Head of Government at Number Ten, he noticed constant comings and goings of ministers to Macmillan's study in Number 11 next door—and that those who attended all seemed to receive promotions when Macmillan became Prime Minister. However, in genuine old age he became almost blind, causing him to need sticks and a helping arm. [128][129] He was also hinting that he would not serve under Butler. [109], Macmillan planned to reverse the 6d cut in income tax which Butler had made a year previously, but backed off after a "frank talk" with Butler, who threatened resignation, on 28 March 1956. 353–54 Petain, a successful French general in the First World War, had become senile while heading the pro-German, Campbell 2009, pp. He felt privately that he was being hounded from office by a backbench minority: Some few will be content with the success they have had in the assassination of their leader and will not care very much who the successor is. Following his resignation in January 1957 he was created Earl of Avon in 1961. In 1929 Lady Dorothy began a lifelong affair with the Conservative politician Robert Boothby, an arrangement that scandalised high society but remained unknown to the general public. He supported the Welfare state and the necessity of a mixed economy with some nationalized industries and strong trade unions. Or was it Tibet? [137] He was also devoted to family members: when Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire was later appointed (Minister for Colonial Affairs from 1963 to 1964 among other positions) he described his uncle's behaviour as "the greatest act of nepotism ever". Macmillan is best remembered for the "affluent society", which he inherited rather than created in the late 1950s, but chancellors came and went and by the early 1960s economic policy was "nothing short of a shambles", while his achievements in foreign policy made little difference to the lives of the public. I really haven't a clue how to set about the job". [248], Macmillan was a member of many clubs. [16] He won an Exhibition (scholarship) to Balliol College, Oxford. In the age of jet aircraft Macmillan travelled more than any previous Prime Minister, apart from Lloyd George who made many trips to conferences in 1919–22. that as the US replaced Britain as the world's leading power, British politicians and diplomats should aim to guide her in the same way that Greek slaves and freedmen had advised powerful Romans). Who was this man and who succeeded him shortly after? [25] Prime Minister Asquith's own son, Raymond Asquith, was a brother officer in Macmillan's regiment, and was killed that month. Many of the salacious revelations about the sex lives of "Establishment" figures during the Profumo affair damaged the image of "the Establishment" that Macmillan was seen as a part of, giving him the image by 1963 of a "failing representative of a decadent elite". This proposal impressed Churchill and General Alexander, but did not meet with American approval. The 1955 gener… Anthony Eden diedon January 14, 1977, from liver cancer. [214], President Kennedy visited Macmillan's country home, Birch Grove, on 29–30 June 1963, for talks about the planned Multilateral Force. He took the title from his former parliamentary seat on the edge of the Durham coalfields, and in his maiden speech in the House of Lords he criticised Thatcher's handling of the coal miners' strike and her characterisation of striking miners as 'the enemy within'. [180] Macmillan pressed Eisenhower to apologise to Khrushchev, which the president refused to do. [206] Macmillan feared the expenses of an all-out war with Indonesia, but also felt to give in to Sukarno would damage British prestige, writing on 5 August 1963 that Britain's position in Asia would be "untenable" if Sukarno were to triumph over Britain in the same manner he had over the Dutch in New Guinea. During the 18th century the term "Prime Minister" came to refer to the monarch's most senior minister. [140], He was nicknamed "Supermac" in 1958 by the cartoonist "Vicky" (Victor Weisz), who intended to suggest that Macmillan was trying set himself up as a "Superman" figure. This time backbench MPs and junior ministers were to be asked their opinion, rather than just the Cabinet as in 1957, and efforts would be made to sample opinion amongst peers and constituency activists. Eileen O'Casey, née Reynolds (1900–95), the actress wife of Irish dramatist Seán O'Casey, was another female friend, Macmillan publishing her husband's plays. [4] Near the end of his premiership, his government was rocked by the Vassall and Profumo scandals, which to cultural conservatives and supporters of opposing parties alike seemed to symbolise moral decay of the British establishment. [251] In October of that year he called for 'a Government of National Unity' including all parties, which could command the public support to resolve the economic crisis. Macmillan wrote in his diary: "If Nasser 'gets away with it', we are done for. Anthony Eden resigned from the office of Prime Minister on January 9, 1957, after doctors warned him his life was in danger if he continued in high-pressure office. Harold Macmillan was, of course, not solely or even pre-eminently responsible for that. Macmillan later claimed in his memoirs that he had still expected Butler, his junior by eight years, to succeed Eden, but correspondence with Lord Woolton at the time makes clear that Macmillan was very much thinking of the succession. Macmillan was badly injured as an infantry officer during the First World War. [201] This aim was best achieved by having the same Malay elite who had worked with the British colonial authorities serve as the new elite in Malaysia, hence Macmillan's desire to have a Malay majority who would vote for Malay politicians. [140] Selwyn Lloyd described Macmillan as treating most of his ministers like "junior officers in a unit he commanded". [62] He supported the independent candidate, Lindsay, at the Oxford by-election. [211], Macmillan also saw the value of rapprochement with the EEC, to which his government sought belated entry, but Britain's application was vetoed by French president Charles de Gaulle on 29 January 1963. With his final exams over two years away, he enjoyed an idyllic Trinity (summer) term at Oxford, just before the outbreak of the First World War. Edmonds, Anthony O. and E. Bruce Geelhoed, Evans, Brendan. [88] He was Secretary of State for Air for two months in Churchill's caretaker government, 'much of which was taken up in electioneering', there being 'nothing much to be done in the way of forward planning'. [151], In the Middle East, faced by the 1958 collapse of the Baghdad Pact and the spread of Soviet influence, Macmillan acted decisively to restore the confidence of Persian Gulf allies, using the Royal Air Force and special forces to defeat a revolt backed by Saudi Arabia and Egypt against the Sultan of Oman, Said bin Taimur, in July 1957;[152] deploying airborne battalions to defend Jordan against Syrian subversion in July 1958;[153] and deterring a threatened Iraqi invasion of Kuwait by landing a brigade group in July 1960.[154]. [71], After Harry Crookshank had refused the job, Macmillan attained real power and Cabinet rank late in 1942 as British Minister Resident at Algiers in the Mediterranean, recently liberated in Operation Torch. [223], Macmillan had a meeting with Butler on 11 September and was careful to keep his options open (retire now, retire in the New Year, or fight the next election). The deportations and Macmillan's involvement later became a source of controversy because of the harsh treatment meted out to Nazi collaborators and anti-partisans by the receiving countries, and because in the confusion V Corps went beyond the terms agreed at Yalta and Allied Forces Headquarters directives by repatriating 4000 White Russian troops and 11,000 civilian family members, who could not properly be regarded as Soviet citizens. [239], Dominic Sandbrook writes that Macmillan's final weeks were typical of his premiership, "devious, theatrical and self-seeking" although not without droll wit and intelligence. He championed a Keynesian strategy of deficit spending to maintain demand and pursuit of corporatist policies to develop the domestic market as the engine of growth. CLEMENT ATLEE. After the Skybolt Crisis undermined the Anglo-American strategic relationship, he sought a more active role for Britain in Europe, but his unwillingness to disclose United States nuclear secrets to France contributed to a French veto of the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community. [194] The two envoys who arrived in Mosocw were W. Averell Harriman representing the United States and Lord Hailsham representing the United Kingdom. In "Economic Aspects of Defence", early in 1939, he called for a Ministry of Supply. [201] Macmillan especially wanted to keep the British base at Singapore, which he like other prime ministers saw as the linchpin of British power in Asia. On taking office he immediately called a general election for 26 May 1955, at which he increased the Conservative majority from seventeen to sixty, a majority which broke a ninety-year record for any UK government. It may well be the end of British influence and strength forever. Her nephew William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, married Kathleen Kennedy, a sister of John F. Kennedy. [6] He had two brothers, Daniel, eight years his senior, and Arthur, four years his senior. He carved out a career in the Foreign Office during important periods in the Second World War and the Cold War, and played a key role in regulating foreign policies to face the rise of the fascist powers. [216] D. R. Thorpe writes that from January 1963 "Macmillan's strategy lay in ruins" leaving him looking for a "graceful exit". However, Butler and Reginald Maudling (who was very popular with backbench MPs at that time) declined to push for his resignation, especially after a tide of support from Conservative activists around the country. in, Grant, Matthew. The procedure. [126][127], On the evening of 22 November 1956 Butler, who had just announced British withdrawal, addressed the 1922 committee (Conservative backbenchers) with Macmillan. [220], By the summer of 1963 Conservative Party Chairman Lord Poole was urging the ageing Macmillan to retire. He sent Lord Hailsham to negotiate the Test Ban Treaty, a sign that he was grooming him as a potential successor. In Southeast Asia, Malaya, Sabah (British North Borneo), Sarawak and Singapore became independent as Malaysia in 1963. [13], As a child, teenager and later young man, he was an admirer of the policies and leadership of a succession of Liberal Prime Ministers, starting with Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who came to power when Macmillan was only 11 years old, and then H. H. Asquith, whom he later described as having "intellectual sincerity and moral nobility", and particularly of Asquith's successor, David Lloyd George, whom he regarded as a "man of action", likely to accomplish his goals. The standard of living had risen enough that workers could participate in a consumer economy, shifting the working class concerns away from traditional Labour Party views. The record of Macmillan's own premiership came under attack from the monetarists in the party, whose theories Thatcher supported. "[252] His plea was interpreted by party leaders as a bid for power and rejected. Nigeria, the Southern Cameroons and British Somaliland were granted independence in 1960, Sierra Leone and Tanganyika in 1961, Trinidad and Tobago and Uganda in 1962, and Kenya in 1963. This man was the Prime Minister of Canada at the beginning of the Great Depression. [139] Another of Macmillan's ministers, Charles Hill, stated that Macmillan dominated Cabinet meetings "by sheer superiority of mind and of judgement". [123] D. R. Thorpe rejects the charge that Macmillan deliberately played false over Suez (i.e. [138] Macmillan's Defence Minister, Duncan Sandys, wrote at the time: "Eden had no gift for leadership; under Macmillan as PM everything is better, Cabinet meetings are quite transformed". The Prime Minister who twice succeeded Ramsay macdonald and was twice his successor adopted the name of what town as part of the title of his earldom? But we cannot but record with frustration the fact that the vigorous and perceptive attacker of the status quo in the 1930s became its emblem for a time in the late 1950s before returning to be its critic in the 1980s. He rose to high office during the Second World War as a protégé of Prime Minister Winston Churchill. [143] Macmillan, away on a tour of the Commonwealth, brushed aside this incident as "a little local difficulty". [113], In November 1956 Britain invaded Egypt in collusion with France and Israel in the Suez Crisis. He learned French at home every morning from a succession of nursery maids, and exercised daily at Mr Macpherson's Gymnasium and Dancing Academy, around the corner from the family home. Macleod greatly accelerated decolonisation and by the time he was moved to Conservative Party chairman and Leader of the Commons in 1961 he had made the decision to give independence to Nigeria, Tanganyika, Kenya, Nyasaland (as Malawi) and Northern Rhodesia (as Zambia). Losing his seat in 1929, he regained it in 1931, soon after which he spoke out against the high rate of unemployment in Stockton-on-Tees. The appointment of a Prime Minister by the monarch is formal, based on advice given to them. Inca. He insisted on being "undisputed head of the home front" and that Eden's de facto deputy Rab Butler, whom he was replacing as Chancellor, not have the title "Deputy Prime Minister" and not be treated as senior to him. He married Clarissa Spencer, Churchill's niece in 1952. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the leader of Her Majesty's Government and chairs Cabinet meetings. It is quite true, many of Your Lordships will remember it operating in the nursery. Part of that monster budget goes to dressing the cast in a wild number of transformative period costumes. [17] Harold resigned from the company on appointment to ministerial office in 1940. Instead, the fortunate resignation of the new candidate at Stockton allowed Macmillan to be re-selected there, and he returned to the House of Commons for his old seat in 1931. [100] The Defence White Paper of February 1955, announcing the decision to produce the hydrogen bomb, received bipartisan support. His last speech from the backbenches was to attack the government for not doing enough to help Finland. "[119] Macmillan knew President Eisenhower well, but misjudged his strong opposition to a military solution. 1, and nuclear contaminants travelled up a chimney where the filters blocked some, but not all, of the contaminated material. Macmillan and Butler met Aldrich on 21 November. [196], Macmillan's first government had seen the first phase of the sub-Saharan African independence movement, which accelerated under his second government. In 1984 he received the Freedom medal from the Roosevelt Study Center. Macmillan and Lady Dorothy lived largely separate lives in private thereafter. Which two other cities also held that title? How do you treat a cold? [221] On 17 June 1963, he survived a Parliamentary vote with a majority of 69,[222] one fewer than had been thought necessary for his survival, and was afterwards joined in the smoking-room only by his son and son-in-law, not by any Cabinet minister. [187] The meeting in Key West was very tense as Macmillan was heard to mutter "He's pushing me hard, but I won't give way". In the 1980s the aged Macmillan was seen as "a revered but slightly pathetic figure". [228], While recovering in hospital, Macmillan wrote a memorandum (dated 14 October) recommending the process by which "soundings" would be taken of party opinion to select his successor, which was accepted by the Cabinet on 15 October. [240], D. R. Thorpe writes that by the early 1960s Macmillan was seen as "the epitome of all that was wrong with anachronistic Britain. In 1935 he was one of 15 MPs to write "Planning for Employment". Macmillan's wartime diaries were better received. The reasons behind Sir Anthony Eden's mistake in dispatching British troops to Suez are among the most enduring mysteries of modern politics. '[244] Commonwealth Secretary-General Sir Shridath Ramphal affirmed: "His own leadership in providing from Britain a worthy response to African national consciousness shaped the post-war era and made the modern Commonwealth possible. [73] Macmillan told Crossman: "We, my dear Crossman, are the Greeks in the American empire. [131] Macmillan argued at Cabinet on 4 January that Suez should be regarded as a "strategic retreat" like Mons or Dunkirk. The American cockiness is shaken....President is under severe attack for the first time...The atmosphere is now such that almost anything might be decided, however revolutionary". [82][83], Macmillan was also the minister advising General Keightley of V Corps, the senior Allied commander in Austria responsible for Operation Keelhaul, which included the forced repatriation of up to 70,000 prisoners of war to the Soviet Union and Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia in 1945. The report starts by quoting the brief provided by the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, from 1960, "First, the industry must be of a size and pattern suited to modern conditions and prospects. He sensed the British were inevitably closely linked to the Americans. [53] The collapse in the Liberal vote let him win in 1924. [194] Through Khrushchev's reply to the Macmillan-Kennedy letter was mostly negative, Macmillan pressed Kennedy to take up the one positive aspect in his reply, namely that if a senior Anglo-American team would arrive in Moscow, he would welcome them to discuss how best to proceed about a nuclear test ban treaty. "[273], A public memorial service, attended by the Queen and thousands of mourners, was held on 10 February 1987 in Westminster Abbey. Then there is the growing division of Conservative prosperity in the south and the ailing north and Midlands. The campaign cost him about £200-£300 out of his own pocket. [136], He became President of the Carlton Club in 1977 and would often stay at the club when he had to stay in London overnight. Clement Attlee. [57] Macmillan Press also published the work of the economist John Maynard Keynes. Deb., cc.390–1, 14 November 1985. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived prime minister in British history. Macmillan failed to heed a warning from Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that whatever the British government did should wait until after the US presidential election on 6 November, and failed to report Dulles' remarks to Eden. [118] On 5 August 1956 Macmillan met Churchill at Chartwell, and told him that the government's plan for simply regaining control of the canal was not enough and suggested involving Israel, recording in his diary for that day: "Surely, if we landed we must seek out the Egyptian forces; destroy them; and bring down Nasser's government. He resumed working with the firm from 1945 to 1951 when the party was in opposition. [186] Kennedy for his part wanted Britain to commit forces to Laos if the United States for political reasons. Within the fabric of the Commonwealth lies the future of the Colonial territories. In March 1932 he published "The State and Industry" (not to be confused with his earlier pamphlet "Industry and the State"). [166] In addition, Macmillan succeeded in having Eisenhower to agree to set up Anglo-American "working groups" to examine foreign policy problems and for what he called the "Declaration of Interdependence" (a title not used by the Americans who called it the "Declaration of Common Purpose"), which he believed marked the beginning of a new era of Anglo-American partnership. [112] Although the Labour Opposition initially decried them as a 'squalid raffle', they proved an immediate hit with the public, with £1,000 won in the first prize draw in June 1957. Britain was saved from a potentially embarrassing commitment when the Winter War ended in March 1940 (Finland would later fight on the German side against the USSR). Macmillan still travelled widely, visiting China in October 1979, where he held talks with senior Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping. Chris Killingstad, the CEO of Tennant Co. for the past 15 years, will retire from that role March 1. On his first evening as Prime Minister he made a public show of taking the Chief Whip Edward Heath for oysters at the Turf Club. [263] He is the last Prime Minister to have been given an hereditary peerage, although Margaret Thatcher's husband was later given a baronetage, which passed on to her own son. [183] The emphasis on aid to the Third World also coincided well with Macmillan's "one nation conservatism" as he wrote in a letter to Kennedy advocating reforms to capitalism to ensure full employment: "If we fail in this, Communism will triumph, not by war or even by subversion but by seemingly to be a better way of bringing people material comforts". Macmillan was in close friendship in old age with Ava Anderson, Viscountess Waverley, née Bodley (1896–1973), the widow of John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley. [89], Macmillan indeed lost Stockton in the landslide Labour victory of 1945, but returned to Parliament in the November 1945 by-election in Bromley. In 1933 he was the sole author of "Reconstruction: A Plea for a National Unity". [139] Macmillan was especially close to his three private secretaries, Tom Bligh, Freddie Bishop and Philip de Zulueta, who were his favourite advisers. "[244], A private funeral was held on 5 January 1987 at St Giles' Church, Horsted Keynes, West Sussex, where he had regularly worshipped and read the lesson. The Laos crisis had a major crisis in Anglo-Thai relations as the Thais pressed for armed forces of all SEATO members to brought to "Charter Yellow", a state of heightened alert that the British representative to SEATO vetoed. [7] His paternal grandfather, Daniel MacMillan (1813–1857), who founded Macmillan Publishers, was the son of a Scottish crofter from the Isle of Arran. He served for about six years, overlapping the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations. [185] However, Macmillan did reluctantly agree if the Americans intervened in Laos, then so too would Britain. Feeling that the Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, was being obstructionist, Macmillan telephoned Kennedy on 11 April 1963 to suggest a joint letter to Khrushchev to break the impasse. The Egyptian nationalisation of the Suez Canal by Nasser on 26 July 1956 prompted the British government and the French government of Guy Mollet to commence plans for invading Egypt, regaining the canal, and toppling Nasser. [54] In 1927, four MPs, including Boothby and Macmillan, published a short book advocating radical measures. To south-east England and fallout reached mainland Europe down, but only if Hailsham could be relied on.! In Interwar Britain ( 1924–1935 ). his last speech from the.... Promising heir the Allied Commission ( the Supreme Commander being President ). [ 278 ] [ 12,! Wild number of transformative period costumes mind and called for a `` 1931 in ''! 30 ], Macmillan succeeded him as Prime Minister and leader of Bank! 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