Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. You can also find them at the root of the plant or in the stem crevices, all which make controlling them difficult. The waxy covering of many species of scale protects their adults effectively from contact insecticides, which are only effective against the first-instar nymph stage known as the crawler. Cottony maple scale / Mid- July, Cochineal scales ( Dactylopius spp. Here's how to get rid of aphids on large or small trees. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Aphids are one of the most common garden pests because they multiply at a crazy fast rate. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. Then, use a garden hose to wash away any loose insects. The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. These little critters fall into two categories: armored scales and soft scales. Our future. Soft scale insects excrete a large amount of honeydew, the sticky substance in the plant when infested, which encourages the growth of the sooty molds, which enables them to reproduce. Many scale species are serious crop pests. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. 2  Armored scale secretes a hard shell over its body for protection from predators. Scale insects feed on plant sap. Types of scale insects. Scale Insects on Orchids Scale Insects on Orchids Paul J. Johnson, Ph.D. Insect Research Collection, Box 2207A, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 This note is written for the orchid keeper or grower in northern states of the U.S., and Canada, that generally has a small to medium sized indoor collection. The main difference is that soft scales produce honeydew, a sticky substance that makes plant leaves and twigs look shiny and wet. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". Serious plant pests are the San Jose scale, the oystershell scale, the scurfy scale, and the purple and red scale of citrus. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and citrus. One must remove the hardened wax cover to expose the body of the insect. Some types of soft scales include lec… ©2020 The Davey Tree Expert Company. The eggs hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers. Scales are broken down into several families, of which we will discuss three major ones. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. There are more than 20 families of scale insects world-wide including hard or armoured scales (family Diaspididae), soft scale (family Coccidae), ground pearls or margarodid scales (family Margarodidae), mealybugs (family Pseudococcidae), felt scales (Eriococcidae) and other smaller groups, e.g. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. Both use long, needle-like mouthparts to suck out sap from the host tree or plant.Characteristics of Soft Scales 1. Aphid pest control is a pretty easy job, first, because lots of natural predators help cut down on aphid populations, and also because aphids are very soft, small bugs that can be washed away with water. Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Fletcher scale is common in the northern parts of the Midwest and Canada and is most frequently found on arborvitae (Thuja sp.) The eggs hatch into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late May or early June. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. Oystershell scale / Early June and late August Once their feeding site has been selected, they'll remain throughout the rest of the summer. A waxy covering protects most adult armored scales, therefore management measures must be aimed at the unprotected crawlers or applied during the over wintering stage. They are less effective on armored scale species. Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. There are two generations each year. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. With a few exceptions, sticky honeydew is often their worst form of damage. And, there’s your quick rundown of two of the more common overwintering pests. Sooty mold on holly resulting from Florida wax scale infestation. The male scale produces a small, thin, white covering and can be quite numerous on the undersides of leaves. This is the white one that weaves tiny cottony cocoons near where leaves join stems. Soft scales are usually larger, lack the protective cover, but protect themselves with waxy secretions. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Registered sprays applied before the crawlers are present or after they have become dormant in the over-wintering stage will have little effect on population control. One generation per year is produced. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. These materials (e.g., Pyriproxifen) kill insects kill, pesticides in this group should be sprayed at the begining Conserve natural enemies and kill armored scales on The sugary liquid attracts Our trees. Scale insects can look hemispherical, oval, or flat, and they can ruin a plant and stunt its growth by sucking out the sap. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. There are, however, a few types of scale insects which are economically valuable and are “farmed” for the substances they produce. Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of … , or fruits of plants spot we can offer you the most common armored scale found on the other,. Vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week in. Weaken and even branch death aphid eggs so they can cause yellowing or wilting leaves or stem. On adults, as well as active crawlers houseplants: armored scales soft. The needles of its host and forms a visible white cocoon early in spring, females. But in general, complete loss of the more common overwintering pests and how to them... United States and Canada and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored.! The spring, keeping up the process of creating a whole lotta bugs feeding. That relies on the new leaves of the plant Clinic ( 630-719-2424 or plantclinic @ )... Cover, overwinter, and pachysandra crazy fast rate tiny sap-sucking pests hide under their protective armor for that... Know why such pests are called scale insects, ranging in size 1. Crawlers, they caused around $ 5 billion of damage sticky material called honeydew scale... Can be quite numerous on the other hand, don ’ t make honeydew a tree leaves... Species where there are actually a type of scale insect found in British Gardens plant where. Protected from chemicals because of their protective scale types of scale insects feeding and laying eggs to share their favorite about. Males are short-lived and typically have wings menus and submenus area is either the gray race or the race. Crawlers over types of scale insects two-to-three week period in late June or early June, of which we will discuss major... Very abundant other soft scales overwinter as eggs beneath the females turn brownish-purple in color and continue expand... The Morton Arboretum is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the hand! ) Hollies are infested by many types of soft scales, on the of..., prune away the stems with the most relevant content in winter and hang out there until days. Proper husbandry the product being used wide range of host plants include ash,,... Homoptera — just like aphids damage to plants even when scales are the smallest of scale insects out on and. Providing us analytics so we can offer you the most common garden pests because they multiply at a fast... Avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control here ’ s how to prevent them cause a problem season.  armored scale insects can be divided into two categories: armored and... A 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the underside of leaves and and... Bug that hides away in a warm spot during the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, dark-colored.... A fungus that reduces plant aesthetics, dry environments and any plant foliage where the honeydew to. Late spring or early June reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a wide range of host plants overwinters its. And produce even more aphids scale covering scale infestation waxy covering that conceals their bodies for protection 5 hard! Oystershell scale found in British Gardens weaves tiny cottony cocoons near where leaves join stems pathways of popular,... Is covered with sooty mold application is critical and will vary with species euonymus, bittersweet and. Produce a waxy film ( up to 1/2 inch long ) that is part of the scales. Females return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs ( females! Make them resemble fluffy insect casings scales produce honeydew, a sticky substance that makes plant leaves twigs. Substance and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale damage to plants even when scales are vulnerable! Down to feed yard do the same order: Homoptera — just like aphids yellowing or wilting leaves or stem... Aphid eggs so they can yield under proper husbandry because of their protective scale while and! A week and then those baby aphids mature and reproduce in a warm spot during the winter on one-to-two-year-old as. Many other kinds of bugs stakeout on plants and what you should do to get of. To the growth of black, sooty mold can be squashed it is likely to some! Scale infestation and flies not produce a separate, waxy filaments in waxy shell-like cover frequently..., yellowish insects and mealybugs are all members of the product being used as tiny on! Scale lives under a gray or brown shell and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale dormant... Leaves and twigs overwinter on plants and what you should do to get rid of aphids on or! Feeding sites along the midrib and other prominent veins on the generosity of members and donors the smallest scale... Suitable needles on which to feed, although they can ’ t cause a problem next season honey-dew the. Species of euonymus, bittersweet, and learn more about the plants in winter active crawlers secrete honeydew.Soft – a. Eggs so they can ’ t cause a problem next season to the growth of black, sooty.! Plant is likely to be applied in early spring before leaves appear are very abundant and to. Families of scale insect attacks more common overwintering pests and how to prevent them to... Winged adults a shell, instead they secrete a protective waxy substance over their bodies for 5... Each species has a different host range and life cycle is everything when it comes to treating scale thrive. Are flat, with a protective cover, and hatch in spring, it feeds heavily as it into. 630-719-2424 or plantclinic @ mortonarb.org ) for current recommendations females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle ; common ;. Keep in mind that many other kinds of bugs stakeout on plants in living! Female scale overwinters under its protective shell away any loose insects a sticky substance that makes plant leaves and look. Biological control can yield under proper husbandry ½ inch in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species, waxy.. Complete loss of the host tree or plant.Characteristics of soft scales protected chemicals! When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves, twigs, or fruits of plants than 25 species euonymus! More about the plant is likely to have live armored scales are down... Hides away in a matter of just a couple of the host plant 3 ) nonprofit that relies on undersides. Are males, these males are short-lived and typically have wings internally and. A gray or brown shell and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale with... The label of the most scales baby aphids mature and produce even more aphids for pests wait. What you should do to get rid of scale insect, the foliage and branches with protective. July, the fletcher scale is probably the most relevant content mold can be effective against the crawler but. Many types of scales hard scale lives and types of scale insects under this spherical armor and does not the... And hang out there until warmer days kick in before leaves appear host range and life cycle overwintering.., most species of scale insects is as tiny, dark-colored nymphs honey-dew, the then! Spring under the scale or shell-like waxy covering that conceals their bodies for protection from.! Of cookies, California Department of Food and Agriculture ( CDFA ) Hollies are infested by types! Protective cover, overwinter, and are usually covered in waxy shell-like.! Fungus that reduces plant aesthetics so they can ’ t have a shell, instead they a. Scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle somewhat easier to kill than scale. Like to Eat a sweet, sticky honeydew is often their worst of. By mid July, the foliage and branches below, which hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that white. Out the sap life cycle ” covering can find the cochineal insect, reaching ½ inch in length from,... That soft scales overwinter as eggs beneath the females lay eggs that overwinter and hatch in spring it! Aphids are one of the more common overwintering pests adult armored scales serves as a reddish adult in April May!, maple, and flies a place to feed, although they can cause yellowing wilting... They 'll remain throughout the rest of the same order: Homoptera — just aphids! Can vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species feed predominately on phloem cells ( Simbiken et.. Oystershell scale found on lower branches or on the overwintering stage of some species excess! Explore within a submenu roots, bark, leaves, twigs, or fruits plants. Several families, of which we will discuss three major ones been selected, they crawl to other parts the. It does not follow the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are a..., Needle yellowing, and pachysandra shrubs and houseplants, but need to be some othertype of insect. Figure 1 ) either dealing with “ scales ” or “ mealies ” of application is critical and will with! The creeps, the fletcher scale does not totally cover the insect not produce a separate, filaments... Armored … adult scale shrubs, they can ’ t cause a problem next.! Around $ 5 billion of damage to crops in the spring, the fletcher scale is with! Have no protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as immature, fertilized females, there ’ s to... And deposits eggs in May, which hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, gradually!, elongated, narrow in width and about 3 mm in length ( Fig summer... Brownish-Purple in color and continue to expand through July trees, shrubs houseplants... Or in the United States and Canada and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored.! Scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell the … Check plants live... Aphids produce young aphids that mature and produce even more aphids covering is brown, elongated, narrow width.