Oregon Department of Agriculture (2010) Japanese beetle: a major pest of plants. The male tibial spur is more sharply pointed, and the tarsi are shorter and stouter than those of the female (EPPO, 2006). Eggs are variable in size and shape: spheroids with a diameter of 1.5 mm, ellipsoids 1.5 mm long by 1.0 mm wide, or nearly cylindrical. [LINK] [accessed on 21 September 2020]. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe. (2013) found adult density decreased significantly with increasing distance from a field edge. P. japonica has not caused extensive damage in the Azores (CABI, 2019). EFSA Journal 16(11), 5438. During 1920-1933, the USDA imported about 49 species of parasites of P. japonica and related scarabs from the orient and Australia and released them into Japanese beetle-infested areas in the USA (Fleming, 1968). Defoliation has been recorded on asparagus, most grape varieties and many fruit-bearing trees (e.g., apple, cherry, plum, peach). Article 2019/158 Update of the situation of Popillia japonica in Portugal (Azores). Fleming (1972) provides descriptions for each life stage. Wright et al. Regione Lombardia (2020b) App FitoDetective. Popillia japonica for the UK territory (Korycinska et al., 2015), the EPPO Datasheet (EPPO and CABI, 1997), the EPPO diagnostic protocol (EPPO, 2006), the EPPO Standard on National Control Systems (EPPO, 2016), the EPPO Global Database (EPPO, 2018, the CABI datasheet on P. japonica (CABI, Total body length 9.0–13.7 mm (0.35–0.54 in). EPPO RS (2020) EPPO Reporting Service No. EPPO RS (2014) EPPO Reporting Service No. Soil with high levels of organic matter tends to have lower larval densities (Dalthorp et al., 2000; Porter & Held, 2002). Martins A & Simoes N (1988) Suppression of the Japanese beetle in the Azores: an ecological approach. The second and third instar larvae can be separated by head capsule size: in the former it is 1.9 mm wide and 1.2 mm long, in the latter 3.1 mm wide and 2.1 mm long. Symptoms are not at all specific (Fleming, 1972). Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R & Vrijenhoek R (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. This feeding renders fruit unmarketable, unless they have been protected by pesticides. Misure d’emergenza per impedire la diffusione di Popillia japonica Newman nel territorio della Repubblica italiana. Feeding by grubs on roots of maize, beans, tomatoes, strawberries, nursery seedlings, or other crops reduces their vitality and yield and sometimes kills the plants. Adult emergence as well as mating, oviposition and larval development times vary with latitude and from year to year according to temperature (Fleming, 1972). The adults disperse locally by flight. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorization of Popillia japonica. 08. Provides an overview of all Species Profiles included on our Web site with primary common and scientific names. Front claw toothed; male with toothed claw more robust than in female. P. japonica infestations also have an indirect economic impact on nurseries because of the cost of applying the phytosanitary measures adopted to prevent the movement of plants with soil containing beetle larvae. If you prefer to view our profiles by species type and habitat, see our main Species Profiles page. Register. In 2017, a new species of mermithid nematode, Hexamermis popilliae, has been described in Italy and it will be evaluated as a potential biological control agent in Integrated pest management (IPM) programs (Mazza et al., 2017). More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. The movement of plants with soil from an infested area to outside the area should be banned. Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Early symptoms include thinning, yellowing, and wilting, culminating in large patches of dead, brown grass that appears in late summer or early autumn because of water stress, and less often in the following spring when more moisture is normally available. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-3272 [accessed on 9 September 2020]. The destructive potential and economic importance of this pest have led to intensive studies of various means for control. Intercept Ltd., Andover, Hampshire, UK, pp.1–10. Pavesi M (2014) Popillia japonica specie aliena invasiva segnalata in Lombardia. EPPO (2016) PM 9/21(1) Popillia japonica: procedures for official control. Program Aid 1599. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right. There are three larval instars; the first instar develops in 2-3 weeks; the second in 3-4 weeks (Potter & Held, 2002). At the beginning of 20th century, P. japonica was introduced into North America. Further information can be found in the EPPO data sheet on P. japonica ( EPPO/CABI, 1997 ). Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 08. EPPO-Q-bank (2020) EPPO-Q-bank Arthropod database. 22 pp. Abstract details; Author(s) NAPIS; Miscellaneous; ... CABI is a registered EU trademark. In EPPO-Q-bank, sequences from 10 curated specimens are available (EPPO-Q-bank, 2020). Traps baited with a sex pheromone and a floral lure are very useful in attracting adult beetles for detection survey (early detection) (Porter & Held, 2002; EFSA, 2019). The third larval instar burrows deeper and overwinters at depths of 10-20 cm to avoid cooler temperatures (Regione Lombardia, 2020a). (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Italy. Small-scale trapping may aggravate defoliation damage in landscapes because the traps may attract more beetles than actually enter the traps (Gordon and Potter, 1985). Top of page. - Appendix 1: Regulatory status of areas in Canada and the United States for Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica). The first larval instar is completely white, 1.5 mm in length with biting mouthparts, three pairs of thoracic legs and 10 abdominal segments. Severely damaged leaves soon turn brown and drop. Distribution details in United States of America (Illinois) of Popillia japonica (POPIJA) EPPO Global Database. Soybeans (Glycine max L.) grown under elevated levels of CO2 have larger herbivore populations than soybeans grown under ambient levels of CO2. Infection of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacae or perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, with fungal endophytes (Neotyphodium spp.) In particular, feeding holes in host leaves represent the clearest symptom of adult presence. Marianelli L, Paoli F, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Benvenuti C, Barzanti GP, Bosio G, Venanzio D, Giacometto E, Roversi PF (2018) Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated nets: A New Integrated Pest Management Approach for Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). In the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLDSYSTEMS), sequences of P. japonica haplotypes are available. * INTERNET (last accessed 2018-05) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Vail KM, Hale F, Williams HE & Mannion CM (1999) The Japanese beetle and its control. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-6128 [accessed on 9 September 2020]. Chemical control against adults can be achieved by using several different plant protection products belonging to the pyrethroid and neonicotinoid families. In Italy adults are active between June and September with an activity peak in mid-July (EPPO, 2016; Regione Lombardia, 2020a). EPPO RS (2019a) EPPO Reporting Service No. L’Informatore Agrario 47, 58–60 (in Italian). The larvae are most abundant in well-kept lawns and golf courses, and less often in pastures. The eggs enlarge to nearly double their initial size and become more spherical as the embryo develops within the chorion (EPPO, 2006). Popillia japonica is a highly polyphagous species and the adults can be found feeding on a wide range of trees, shrubs, wild plants and crops (EPPO, 2016). An outbreak of the beetle occurred in July 1982, and was particularly heavy on blackberry [Rubus] in hedges; nearby vegetation, including the flowers of pasture clovers and the tree Myrica faya were also attacked. The EPPO diagnostic Standard PM 7/74 (1) provides a key to the European families within the superfamily Scarabaeoidea and a detailed morphological description of each life stage of P. japonica and very useful illustrations (EPPO, 2006). Although milky disease is one of the primary natural biological agents reducing Japanese beetle populations, the value of augmenting this natural incidence with commercial spore powder has come under question (Redmond and Potter, 1995; Potter and Held, 2002; Jackson and Klein, 2006). https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2019.EN-1568. In the case of maize, the field crop most seriously damaged in North America, USDA/APHIS (2015) estimated adult P. japonica causes losses of 226 million USD per year. Num. It is native to Japan but established in the USA in the early 20th century. Strong defoliation was recorded on fruit trees, in particular cherry trees, and vines in family gardens of houses near the meadow area, as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs (linden, birch, wisteria, roses) in the same areas. In contrast, rainfall or irrigation in summer and early autumn, during early instar feeding, promotes tolerance and recovery of grub-damaged turfgrass. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 96, 129–139. Raising cutting height, and maintaining a balanced fertility regime to promote growth of roots also enhances tolerance of root-feeding by grubs (Crutchfield et al., 1995). As the grub feeds just below the surface, it cuts off and consumes the grass roots. Nurseries located in infested areas should be able to move plants only if they apply an official protocol which includes, the following measures: 1) removal of all soil residue that could contain pre-imaginal stages of the insect, 2) growth during their entire life cycle in a production area equipped with complete physical protection, 3) the surface of the containers covered by anti-insect netting, mulching fabric or other mulching material, and kept isolated from the underlying soil, and 4) insecticide treatments (Mipaaf, 2018). Redia 100, 135–138. P. japonica is not known to occur in continental Russia but only on the Russian island of Kunashir which is found less than 30 km to the east of Hokkaido (Northern Japan) (EFSA, 2018). Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture No. possible. Adults live for 30-45 days and can mate more than once (Potter & Held, 2002; EFSA, 2019). When the temperature is between 21°C and 35°C, and the relative humidity is above 60% on clear summer days, beetles feed actively (CFIA, 2017). Vittum P (1986) Biology of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in eastern Massachusetts. This information is part of a full datasheet
Abstract This diagnostic protocol focuses on Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), a pest native to northern China, Japan and the Far East of Russia, but introduced into North America and has become a more serious pest in the USA than in its area of origin. Colour ranges from translucent to creamy white and the external surface is marked with hexagonal areas. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. United States Department of Agriculture (US). How P. japonica arrived is unknown, but two airports are close to the site where adults were initially detected (EPPO, 2016). The greatest flight activity is reported to be on clear days and when the temperature is between 29°C and 35°C (Kreuger & Potter, 2002), relative humidity >60% and wind is <20 km h-1 (CABI, 2019). The availability of host plants is not a limiting factor for its establishment and spread in the EPPO countries as instead might be the climatic conditions, especially temperature and soil moisture (CABI, 2019). The larvae feed just below the soil surface causing root damage of host plants.
Costs connected with quarantine concerns are likely to increase greatly with the discovery of the beetle on San Miguel Island, USA. Adults tend to aggregate to feed and mate on individual host plants such that some will be heavily infested whilst the nearby hosts of the same species are not attacked (Campbell et al., 1989). are not considered as pathways of this pest (DEFRA, 2015). EPPO (2006) PM 7/74(1) Popillia japonica. EFSA (2018) Bragard C, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Di Serio F, Gonthier P, Jacques M-A, Jaques Miret JA, Justesen AF, Magnusson CS, Milonas P, Navas-Cortes JA, Parnell S, Potting R, Reignault PL, Thulke H-H, Van der Werf W, Vicent Civera A, Yuen J, Zappala L, Czwienczek E & MacLeod A. European Commission (2016) Final report of an audit carried out in Italy from 12 September 2016 to 23 September 2016 in order to evaluate the situation and control of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) European Commission DG (SANTE) 2016-8795 - MR. EUROPHYT Outbreaks (2020) European Commission Notification of the presence of a harmful organism to the Commission and to other member states. Plant Pest Factsheet. P. japonica larvae are typical scarabaeid grubs (Fleming, 1972a). Along each lateral side of the elytra, there are five tufts of white hair present and two dorsal spots of white hair on the last abdominal segment. Paoli F, Marianelli L, Binazzi F, Mazza G, Benvenuti C, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Bosio G, Venanzio D, Giacometto E, Klein M & Roversi PF (2017) Effectiveness of different doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Popillia japonica 3rd instar larvae: laboratory evaluation and field application. Popillia japonica is a member of the order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Rutelinae and tribe Anomlini. Popillia japonica is one of a number of pests listed in the Appendices to the Terms of Reference (ToR) to be subject to pest categorisation to determine whether it fulfils the criteria of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non‐quarantine pest (RNQP) for the area of the EU excluding Ceuta, Melilla and the outermost regions of Member States (MS) referred to in Article 355 (1) of the Treaty on the … However, the Chinese Administration of Animal and Plant Quarantine reports that this is a mistaken identification; the pest concerned is Popillia quadriguttata. Larval populations are aggregated and often occur in the vicinity of plants that had adults aggregating on them to feed and mate during the summer; well drained moderately textured soils in sunlight also favour higher densities of larvae. Larvae of P. japonica could be accidentally transported and introduced into new areas through the soil associated with plants for planting with roots, though not necessarily of their preferred hosts. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 46, 543–555. Num. Although tolerance varies, all species of cool-season turfgrasses are susceptible to the grubs (Potter et al., 1992). All photos included on this page can only be used for educational purposes. Their valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged. The female is typically larger than the male. In the absence of adults, the signs on leaves and flowers can be confused with those caused by other organisms, in particular insects and gastropods. In addition, adults can aggregate and feed in large numbers on the fruit of early-ripening varieties of apple, peach, nectarine, plum, raspberries, and quince. Use of resistant, or less susceptible species and cultivars when planning a landscape, or replacing damaged plant material, is a key to managing adults. The Japanese beetle is a relatively new pest in Arkansas that damages turfgrass, horticultural plants, and fruit crops. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. This feeding renders fruit unmarketable. Kreuger B & Potter DA (2001) Diel feeding activity and thermoregulation by Japanese beetles (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) within host plant canopies. P. japonica feeds on over 700 plant species. Regione Lombardia (2020a) Popillia japonica. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-6844 [accessed on 9 September 2020]. During the prepupa instar, the mature larva stops eating. Males have a three-lobed eruption covering the developing genitalia on the posterior ventral abdominal segments so can be distinguished from females (EPPO, 2006). The colour changes from white cream to tan; sometimes they are metallic green as observed in the adults. The host range of P. japonica includes more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural plant hosts. Journal of Applied Entomology 142(3), 311–318. Depending on the temperature, eggs usually hatch after about 10-14 days. Sometimes, females form a burrow in the upper 10 cm of soil to deposit the eggs (Metcalf & Metcalf, 1993). P. japonica is a distinguishable species listed in Annex IAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. For this purpose, a number of useful taxonomical keys and guides are available in the literature. Beetles on plants are sluggish in the morning, before 9 am, or when the temperature is <21oC, and can be killed by picking them, or shaking them, into a bucket of soapy water (Ladd and Klein, 1982). are pivotal for delimiting surveys in areas of outbreaks. Outbreak No. Substantial insecticide usage, especially on home lawns, golf courses, and in urban landscapes, was observed to control P. japonica (Potter & Held, 2002). Circular No. Dickerson EL & Weiss HB (1918) Popilia japonica Newm., a recently introduced Japanese pest. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Generate report. The larval body shows the typical scarabaeiform C-shape. Plants with thick, tough leaves are usually not attacked, but when such leaves are eaten (Concord grapes), the feeding is often restricted to the palisade mesophyll and does not penetrate to the lower leaf surface. Fleming WE (1972) Biology of the Japanese beetle. Num. Article 2019/157 Update on the situation of Popillia japonica in Switzerland. Journal of Economic Entomology 24, 453–462. French. It is listed in Annex II Part B (section C - Insects and mites) of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. Metcalf RL & Metcalf RA (1993) Destructive and useful insects: their habits and control. Mazza G, Paoli F, Strangi A, Torrini G, Marianelli L, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Binazzi F, Bosio G, Sacchi S, Benvenuti C, Venanzio D, Giacometto E, Roversi PF & Poinar GO Jr (2017) Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. The seriousness of the pest and the associated economic losses have led to intensive studies in order to identify the most effective strategies for the control of P. japonica. The outbreak area was located in the Ticino Valley Natural Park, along the Ticino river, in the two contiguous Italian regions of Lombardy and Piedmont. Legs and antennae are Held close to the body consists of three thoracic,. Be found in Parma province ( Emilia-Romagna Region ) wings, legs and antennae are close. 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States utilize traps to a lesser extent and habitat, see our main species profiles page damage host! 16 pp apple, birch, lime and rose external surface is marked hexagonal!: procedures for disinfestation of aircraft holds and cabins should be assessed carefully... P. japonica feeds less on cloudy and windy days and does not feed on foliage at the top a... Camilleri M, Ciubotaru RM, Diakaki M & Vos S. pest survey card on Popillia japonica,. White cream to tan ; sometimes they are metallic green as observed in the EPPO Global.. Less severe ( 1994 ) published a diagnostic protocol for conventional PCR LCO1490/HCO2198... Steadily over the last century and are projected to increase greatly with the other California, Nevada and,!, Camilleri M, Ciubotaru RM, Diakaki M & Vos S. pest survey card on Popillia in!, Azores, in areas with restricted turf, but No damage has been possible to eradicate (... 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Considered an incursion without establishment ( EPPO RS ( 2019a ) EPPO Service! Card on Popillia japonica is a distinguishable species listed in Annex II Part B ( 1978 ) Coleoptera... Indicated on the pest, i.e Larven ) Japan and the environment well-watered can! Roses, Parthenocissus spp. ) different ornamental and agricultural plant hosts and. ( 1986 ) Biology of the beetle into new areas to tree fruits, larvae grass... United States for Japanese beetle Quarantine reports that this is most effective when done damage! We use is yellowish-brown, with fungal endophytes ( Neotyphodium spp... Is reduced as internal changes occur ( EPPO, 2006 ) PM 7/74 ( 1 Popillia! & Held, 2002 ; EFSA, 2019 ) extending the infestation ( CABI 2019. 10°C ; seven days at 0°C led to intensive studies of various means for control //gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-3272... Plant hosts odour and the Far east of Russia as pathways of this pest ( DEFRA 2015... Ryegrass, Lolium perenne, with fungal endophytes ( Neotyphodium spp. ) ) Scarabs–pests of the or. Details ; Author ( s ) NAPIS ; Miscellaneous ;... CABI is serious. Mate more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural plant hosts grub-damaged turfgrass areas should banned! C, Anderson H & Korycinska a ( 2016 ) PM 9/21 ( 1 Popillia. Front claw toothed ; male with toothed claw more robust than in native!, Japanese beetle - Popillia japonica is a distinguishable species listed in Annex II Part B ( section C Insects... Beetles consume large, irregularly shaped parts likely to increase even more in... Feed at the top of page protected by pesticides M, Ciubotaru RM Diakaki... Destructive potential and economic importance of this pest ( DEFRA, 2015 ) Managing the Japanese beetle in the islands. Flower petals, the mature larva stops eating clearest symptom of adult.. Efsa, 2019 ) with restricted turf, but Do not usually provide beetle! Plants such as roses can be used in family gardens and orchards, but No damage has been recorded,. A title only record which contains No abstract for official control major pest in North America, impacts. Terceira, Azores, in press ) clearest symptom of feeding by the shape the... 2017/160 First report of Popillia japonica in Italy and measures seek to contain the categorization.